- No ceiling effect (as a general statement this means the larger the dose, the larger the effect)
- Tolerance can develop with chronic use
- Overuse can lead to respiratory depression or seizures
Mild to moderate pain: codeine or tramadol
Moderate to severe pain: hydrocodone, oxycodone, hydromorphone
Severe pain: morphine, codeine, methadone
**Some of these can crossover between categories based on dosage.
Source: Handbook of Neurosurgery, Greenberg 6th ed